Dior Hydration Gives You New Skin -

Christian Dior, Dior Hydration, Deep Hydration Creme, Deep Hydration Creme Gel Christian Dior, an influential French fashion designer, is best known as the founder of one of the worlds top fashion house, also called Christian Dior. In addition to leading manufacturer of luxury goods, also it produces some of the world finest cosmetics. His ideas first began in the fashion industry.

He desired to bring exquisiteness as well as elegance to people around the world. At the height of his career, Dior began creating fragrances, makeup and skin care merchandise in addition to his high fashion creations. Christian Dior, an influential French fashion designer, is best known as the founder of one of the worlds top fashion house, also called Christian Dior.

In addition to leading manufacturer of luxury goods, also it produces some of the world finest cosmetics. His ideas first began in the fashion industry. He desired to bring exquisiteness as well as elegance to people around the world.

At the height of his career, Dior began creating fragrances, makeup and skin care merchandise in addition to his high fashion creations. Women who are interested in caring for their skin while adding a beautiful polished look to their face will have to look no further than Christian Dior. In the coming spring, how to keep the skin moisturized is on the top.

Christian Dior will help you. The Dior Hydration products are designed for an individual who has the desire to re-hydrate their skin because of dryness, redness or a person lacking the nutrients required to bring life back to the skin. There are 16 items in all to choose from in this specific Dior line, including creams, gels, sprays, masks and light creams.

The Dior Hydration products have created an entire range of moisturizing products which can be used in the home to pamper your face and provide all the essential nutrient and balancing elements. Try one of the many brands of cosmetics and skin care products from Dior, you will understand why so many women are shedding their old skin and entering into a world of new, smooth, silky skin. Want to share a story of your luxury handbags?

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All Natural Skin Care Products
A range of all natural skin care products are developing a niche on the platform of cosmetics industry. These natural products comprises of pure and natural ingredients obtained from nature's resources. Nature has various resources that have been a part of beauty regimes for centuries.Natural skin care products assist in restoring skin's natural moisture and stimulating skin's natural functions. These also promote healing and preventing skin against damage. The usage of natural beauty products enhances spirituality, vitality and sensuality, giving way to a healthier and youthful appearance.Not all natural cosmetics are pure. These beauty products contain extracts from animals and plants that may not be 100% pure. Natural products may be organic as well as inorganic. Some of the products made from inorganic ingredients may be harmful to the skin but the one made from 100% pure and organic ingredients are the best solution to any skin ailment.People today are turning more towards organic skin care products because they are made of pure, safe, clean and potent plant extracts, nurturing the complete ecology and providing a better glowing skin and longer lasting beauty. The most common ingredients are zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, Aloe Vera, olive oil, castor oil, cloves, citrus fruits, milk, honey, tea tree, lavender, coconut milk, eucalyptus oil and rose. These non toxic skin care products let the skin breathe and respire, offering a completely new and outstanding look.The most common skin problem today is acne and wrinkles. The market of anti wrinkle skin care products is growing tremendously. India being the hub for all natural beauty products has the largest market for anti wrinkle products as well. People in India suffer skin damage mostly because of sun rays and these anti wrinkles products help them combat the skin damage.Many people are doing a thorough market research and are taking help of various professional natural skin care products to look better. Wholesale skin care products including creams, lotions, sun screen, moisturizer, toner and night renewal creams are available in the market for both men and women.Why one forgets that a beautiful skin is the result of a healthy body. If a person is physically and mentally fit, the skin will glow naturally and will not require any cosmetic to enhance the normal skin functions. A good diet with the right quantity of right nutrients will always reflect natural beauty.Today there are many herbal supplements available in the market. These medicines are made of various natural herbs which have been proved to be very effective in maintaining a healthy skin. To get detailed information on these herbal supplements please click on the links.
4 Spa Industry Trends That Will Make You Feel Great About Spending
NEW YORK (TheStreet) - For some reason, it remains little known that Massage Envy also offers facials.The nationwide franchise, best known for the massages it's named for, heard customer feedback and made a strategic business move a few years ago to add skincare to its offerings.Massage Envy's facials are fabulous, professional, relaxing and - here's an important point - affordable, which is not always the case in the spa world. For a $59 to $79 monthly membership (depending on your location), customers get one facial a month for $10. The facial includes a detailed skin analysis, custom treatment plan and, in the best of both worlds, a head and neck massage."We try to listen to our customers," says Massage Envy's Sheila Ullery, vice president of retail and merchandising. "We realized we had an opportunity to offer high-quality facials but at a lesser price point."The move appears to have been a smart one for the company. Ullery says Massage Envy's facials are one of its fastest-growing business segments. To publicize its offerings even further, Massage Envy is offering "Summer Glow Skincare" from July 5 to Aug. 2 in which members and guests get $10 off the company's four Murad Healthy Skin facials.The expansion is just one headline to emerge from the recent 2015 West Coast International Spa Association gathering in California and in the 12th annual trends report from Spafinder Wellness 365. The report, which identifies the top 10 spa trends of the year, says there's a search among spa goers in a world overwhelmed by technology, for simpler, healthier ways of living. The spa world is happy to tap into the demand, including in these ways:Topping the list of new treatments in terms of how quickly it's spreading across the country is forest bathing, known as shinrin-roku, coined by the Japanese government in 1982 and literally meaning "taking in the forest atmosphere," says the report."Forest bathing speaks to the art of walking through forest and being intent on the sounds, the smells and how it feels, all of which has been proven to have calming affects with regard to anxiety," says Mia Kyricos, chief brand officer for Spafinder Wellness. "It's really about mindful contemplation, deep breathing ... It's something that has been done for a long time in Japan, Korea and other Asian countries. But it's really just emerging in the modern spa and wellness world. And the reason why it's emerging is because it's not just touchy-feely; there is actual evidence behind this and its benefits for the immune and cardiovascular system."A study from the universities of Kansas and Utah, for instance, found that three days of wilderness hiking improved scores on creativity tests by 50%. A recent large study from the University of Michigan and Edge Hill University found that nature walks significantly combat stress and depression.Kyricos says forest bathing is an ideal calming activity for the often highly stressed Wall Street crowd, and there are several spas within a few hours' drive of New York City that offer the opportunity to indulge. Her two top picks include Woodloch Lodge in Pennsylvania, including walks led by a master herbalist who teaches mindful contemplation, deep breathing and foraging for edible plants and remedies, and Stowe Mountain Lodge in Vermont, with its "Wei to Wellness" package that includes a "Mindful Snowshoe Tour."The treatment is also at such spas as L'Auberge de Sedona in Arizona and The Mayflower Grace in Washington, Conn.Cannabis-related treatments are also highlighted in the Spafinder Wellness report, which says the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use in the U.S.:Markets and products are springing up, and cannabis is becoming integrated with spa, yoga and beauty and wellness products.North American dispensaries and European cannabis clubs are shifting to become spa-like wellness centers that do more then just sell product, but also offer free massages, yoga, Pilates, meditation classes and alternative medicine specialists. Some even now offer trendy cannabis juice bars, the report says.At Canna Clinic Medicinal Society in Vancouver, Canada, there are free cannabis oil massages. The same city's Sea to Sky Alternative Healing Clinic has an in-house naturopath and medicinal smoothie bar. At Sparc, in San Francisco, free acupuncture, meditation, acupressure, Ayurveda and live jazz are among the latest offerings.Traditional medical spas are jumping on the cannabis bandwagon by having clinic doctors recommend or prescribe medical marijuana, after which topical cannabis products can be used in spa services. Examples include Restorations Wellness Center & Spa in Denver and MD Medical Spa & Wellness Center in Boston and Cape Cod, Mass."We are literally seeing bed and breakfasts rebranding themselves around cannabis," Kyricos says. "And it's being integrated into skin care products. There's a company called Dixie Elixir that's producing very slick, topical products that wouldn't look out of place on a shelf at Whole Foods. They look that refined."The range of products made from cannabis include lotions, massage oils, salves, salts and soaps. Although there has yet to be a great deal of research on the benefits of cannabis used on the skin, there are some indications topicals can be pain reducing and anti-inflammatory, the report says.The Islamic traditions being incorporated into offerings at U.S. spas are perhaps the newest and least fully developed of the trends highlighted by the report.Stemming from a consumer hunger for all things authentic and indigenous, there is an increasing interest in Islamic spa treatments that go beyond the long familiar hammam. Spas are now branching into additional Islamic practices such as rasul (mud experiences), camel's milk baths and even new sand-immersive massage tables."Sand bathing from the Middle East and North Africa has translated into a new innovation - the sand table," Kyricos says. "It's been found that there is a therapeutic benefit to laying on sand during a massage. Camel's milk is going to be another big offering. We are starting to see camel's milk baths and camel's milk you can consume, all of which is coming from the Middle East. Rasul is also something that used to be only seen in the Middle East and we are now starting to see it come west. These are all ancient traditions that we know are being prepared to come westward.""Let's face it, Islamic countries have gotten a lot of bad press lately," Kyricos says. "This is an opportunity to showcase some of their healing traditions, much like India did with Ayurveda. "Finally comes the latest facial at the Beverly Wilshire, a Four Seasons hotel in Beverly Hills.Because of the partnership between the Beverly Wilshire and exclusive, luxurious Natura Bisse product line, many treatments from the skin care line are launched at the Beverly Wilshire before rollout to the rest of the country.The Beverly Wilshire is still the only location in the country offering the Diamond Rose Facial -as the name implies, a treatment based on damask rose and diamond dust. It costs a steep $395 but has been promoted by the skin care company as a treatment worthy of preparing celebrities for the red carpet, turning back time for a youthful glow.The facial includes a number of Natura Bisse's exclusive formulations, such as a Diamond Experience Nectar (made to boost skin vitality and elasticity) and Diamond Experience Essence, a cream developed to restructure and restore firmness.While its price tag is steep, the Diamond Rose Facial is worth nearly every penny. Perhaps file it in the once-or-twice-a-year-splurge category, just to keep yourself picture perfect.
Will the Aussie Rocks T-shirt Save Australian Tourism?
TWO Aussie designers have created a T-shirt they hope will boost tourism to Australia and become as iconic as the "I heart NY" slogan.Chaya Segelman and Sara Feldman, from New South Wales, created the label - a ochre-coloured hand displaying the peace sign - for Australians to wear proudly overseas."We thought it was about bloody time us Aussies had something iconic and fashionable to wear when we travel the world, as so many young Australians do, to express our pride in who we are and where we come from," Chaya Segelman said. "However, what we (Australia) didn't have was that one iconic brand that can express that emotion. Aussie Rocks arrived to fill that void. Finally we have a way to wear what we are all really thinking: Aussie Rocks."It's a powerful, emotional statement that means something to each individual."Success in tourism T-shirts doesn't come overnight. The "I heart NY" T-shirts was created in the mid '70s by Milton Glaser and has taken 40 years for the brand to be recognised worldwide.The logo is now trademarked, has a song to accompany it, and is seen on everything from postcards to cars."Everyone knows that when you go to New York, you can't leave without an "I heart NY" tee," Ms Segelman said."But we are quite confident in the potential of this brand. "We believe the next couple of years should see a full roll-out of the brand on a much larger scale. Our hope is that Aussie Rocks will have an impact on the profile of Australia in the eyes of the world, and at home."However, Peter Byron from says t-shirts aren't very popular with tourists, who instead opt for clip-on koalas when it comes to the ultimate Australian souvenir."Clip-on koala's are actually our most popular item, with fridge magnets and Australian skin care products like lanolin and Emu creams also selling well."The company, based in Sydney, has sold souvenirs to tourists since 1996.Ms Segelman said the Aussie Rocks brand so far has been well received, with the t-shirts being spotted everywhere from an LA Lakers game to the top of the Eiffel tower, at a bull fight in Spain and in a Kalgoorlie mine.Tourism Australia refused to comment on the t-shirts, but said Australia had a record number of visitors in 2010, welcoming 5.9 million holidaymakers to our shores. .
The Skin Nerd Treats Celebrity Guests to a Good Skin Day
Over the past six weeks on RTÉ LifeStyle, Jennifer Rock aka The Skin Nerd has been discussing all things skin. Whether you want to learn about the benefits of , or how to , this skin expert has you covered.Now, the , presented by the Skin Nerdherself. In each episode, Jennifermeets a celebrity guest and gets to grips with their skin issues. Together, they'll discover some of Ireland's most in-demand and trendy skin care treatments.In episode one, we meetFormer Miss Ireland, blogger, and modelAoife Walsh.As a redhead who has very pale skin, she suffers easily from sunburn and needs to ensure that she uses SPF.While sharingher deepest darkest skin confessions, emergency sunburn recovery hacks and revealing her biggest ever, Jennifergets the bride-to-be prepped for her upcoming wedding in 2020.Both ladies treat themselves treating themselves to a Voya Deluxe Facial, aseaweed treatmentthat helps to plump and firm the skin. It's just the ticket for a stressed out and slightly dehydrated jet setter like Aoife.Next up is reality TV star Joshua Todd Patterson aka JP who is probablybest known for his time on.The Skin Nerd grills the reality star to determine whether he has more good skin days than bad and how he manages to maintain a model complexion for the cameras' constant demands despite having a history of breakouts. As she delves deeper under his skin, Jennifer finds out about JP's adventures in parenthood, his Irish roots, his views on fame and mental health and of course his terribly convincing "Oirish accent!"To begin their Spa afternoon, Jennifer brings JP for some whole body cryotherapy, a treatment thatexposes the body to sub-zero temperatures over a short period of time, resulting in multiple health benefits. It briefly freezes the skin stimulating the production of anti-inflammatory proteins, as well as collagen and elastin production in the skin.In at number three is influencer, model and actress Maeve Madden for a face to face conversation about everything from breakoutsto social media trolls and everything in between. Jennifer takes a closer look at what makes Maeve's skin tickand brings her out for aMicroneedling treatment.The basic premise behind Microneedling is to stimulate the production of new collagen by injuring the skin. Taking advantage of the skin's ability to heal itself, microneedling causes micro-injuries to the epidermis, which signals the body to produce collagen to remodel the damaged area, which in effect rejuvenates the skin making it look younger and fresher.Last but not leastisTropical Popical founder and political activist, Andrea Horan. The pair meet in the popular South William street nailbar and enjoy a good gossip. Jenifergets to grips with Andrea's skin habits good and bad, and figures out her biggest skin concerns.To face up to some of the issues,Andrea books herself in for an Active Vitamin Treatment which claims to leave your skin looking radiant and dewy but you may feel a little like a science experiment in the process! The aim is to stimulate Collagen to soften lines and improve elasticity, increase hydration and boost radiance.to watchtheir new four-part series,to listen to The Skin Nerd's brand new podcast,'Deep Cleanse - The Skin Nerd'. You can find iton
Benefits of Turmeric and Its Use for Wrinkles Treatment
Often called Indian saffron, turmeric is a yellow spice along with a distinctive aroma and also flavor. It is actually well known in mid-Eastern plus Asian dishes which include chutney, mustard pickles along with curry, nevertheless it is more than a a spice for food especially in recent years. It is fast becoming a home remedy for beauty in addition to care. But some of us wonder what is turmeric wrinkles treatment and does it works? What other secondary effects and also benefits does this spice possess? Turmeric as Wrinkles Solution - Applying the paste of turmeric onto facial lines, is surely an potent technique to lighten the facial lines along with decelerate aging. In other words, it works. Preparation of the turmeric paste is also fairly easy. Just simply sprinkle some turmeric powder into a container with 2 teaspoons of butter milk. Mix well right up till it turns into a paste. Apply onto areas where facial lines are distinctly visible and allow the paste to stay for half hour before washing it off. Even if facial lines are not a concern at this point, turmeric is also a good prevention remedy for facial lines. Applying it as face mask habitually aids you to delay skin aging too. Do it twice once a week for effective results. Turmeric for Skin Care - This specific spice isn't just fantastic as facial lines cure. It is normally used for healthy skin care too. Turmeric extracts are used in numerous skin care products due to the healing properties. As an example, Turmeric is used in products for dandruff control, acne and also psoriasis treatments. It is also used to heal plus prevent dry skin. Nutritional Values of Turmeric - This spice comes with numerous nutritional values. Only to list a few, it truly is rich in nutrients which are beneficial substances for our body system. Medical Values of Turmeric - With rich nutritional values, it does not come as a surprise that turmeric has many medical uses. It is used to minimize bloating along with improve digestion. On top of that, turmeric serves as a tonic for liver plus assists hepatitis and cirrhosis patients whose liver are damaged due to the medical conditions. At the same time, turmeric also prevent arteries blockage through regulating bad cholesterol level. Additionally, it is a pain relief particularly for the joints along with menstrual cramps. Unwanted Effects of Turmeric - Even though an incredible spice with many desirable properties, turmeric has numerous side effects. Care and attention need to be taken so as never to overdose despite the fact that this is a natural spice. Clinical tests on animals show that excessive turmeric cause liver disorder. Although there is hardly any similar finding in the mankind, it is worth your time to be vigilant. Several of the unwanted effects are: Excessive Internal Bleeding - A number of the tell tale signs tend to be blurred vision, slurred and slow speech, headaches plus numbness. At the same time the stools are going to turn dark with traces of blood. Individuals with serious internal bleeding may very well vomit blood also. Bruises that will not heal or cuts that won't stop bleeding can also be common tell tale signs too. Skin Irritation - When applied to the skin, turmeric will cause skin irritation for some people, nonetheless it generally subsides after a few days. In the event you experience skin irritation, stop using it and consult the medical doctor in the event that condition persists. Pregnant and also Lactating Mothers - Prevent taking or using turmeric in any form unless permitted by medical doctor. For whatever purpose, for anyone who is uncertain , it will always be recommended to consult a specialist before using. Turmeric is more than simply a facial lines solution that works. It is also an effective beauty and care cure that comes with several nutritional and medical values also.
What Warning Labels Could You See on Products to Be Used in Space?
Nowadays there are warning labels on most everything: this is flammable, that will cause injury because it's sharp, this substance is poisonous, and that canister is under pressure, but what types of warning labels would you need for items designed to be used in a weightless environment? There is a very large set of possibilities. For real-world examples do some research on what NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CNSA do. The list below is just off the top of my head. Cannot be used in microgravity. Must be used in gravity field greater than X% of earth.Must be used in gravity field less than X% of earth.Cannot withstand acceleration greater than Y. Must be aligned along a certain axis for acceleration.Must be used at an atmospheric pressure greater than X.Must be used at an atmospheric pressure less than X. Cannot be used in Heliox atmosphere. Must only be unwrapped/used in an environment with a scrubber that can handle a particular chemical.Must be decontaminated via (some method) when moving from atmospheric composition X to composition Y.Must be exposed to hard vacuum for X hours before being brought into atmosphere. Requires shielding in a certain EM range. Requires grounding. Requires shielding from certain cosmic rays.Cannot be used during a solar flare of greater than X intensity.Cannot be used if organism X is present.Can only be used if organism X is present. Cannot be taken to an uncontaminated planetary environment.Can be injected into a person only if they have a certain symbiote/implant/genetic marker.Can only be used in temperature range X to Y. Can only be stored in temperature range X to Y.Do not change temperature at a rate greater than Z/sec OTHER ANSWER: The thing about silly warnings on earth is that most of them were added because someone, somewhere actually did it and did try to sue the manufacturer. Whether the warning can be followed in practice is irrelevant, as the only purpose is to try to give the manufacturer more leverage in case of a legal claim.So considering the actual incidents and accidents that have occurred in spaceflight, we can color things up a bit and warn:.
Justice Dept Settles with Tobacco Cos on Database
RICHMOND, Va. The nation's two biggest tobacco companies, Philip Morris USA Inc. and R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., have agreed to pay $6.25 million to support the country's largest online collection of internal tobacco industry documents, the Justice Department announced Wednesday. The settlement resolves a dispute over an online document database that a U.S. District Court judge in Washington, D.C., mandated in a 2006 ruling in which she found the companies masked the dangers of smoking. U.S. District Judge Gladys Kessler said the companies were trying to deceive people about the health effects of smoking and nicotine addiction and about marketing to youth and changes to cigarette designs to increase addiction. Over the next four years, the companies will fund and enhance access to the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, an online database of more than 13 million internal tobacco company documents run by the University of California, San Francisco. The 11-year-old database mostly contains documents revealed during lawsuits against the companies. Hard copies are stored in an archive known as the Minnesota Depository. Representatives for Richmond, Va.-based Altria Group Inc., parent of Philip Morris USA, and for Reynolds American Inc., the Winston-Salem, N.C.-based owner of R.J. Reynolds, declined to comment on the settlement Wednesday. The settlement still must be approved by the court. "This agreement helps make sure that these documents will be accessible to researchers, journalists, students, lawyers, the government and the public at large -- anyone who is interested in learning more about the defendants' efforts to mislead consumers about the effects of smoking," Tony West, assistant attorney general for the civil division of the Department of Justice, said in a statement. In addition to the document database, Kessler has said she wants the industry to pay for various types of ads, both broadcast and print, but she has not said what the statements should say, where they must be placed or for how long. The government's proposed corrective ads would cover the addictiveness of nicotine, the lack of health benefits from "low tar," "ultra-light" and "mild" cigarettes and the dangers of secondhand smoke. The companies have argued that the statements are inflammatory, inaccurate and "designed solely to shame and humiliate" the companies. The court is considering delaying that decision while other courts decide newer cases challenging new tobacco marketing restrictions and graphic cigarette warning labels the government has proposed. ------ Michael Felberbaum can be reached at .
Handle with Care: Prepackaged Meal Kits and New Food Delivery Methods Are Serving Up a New Helping o
In June 2016, National Frozen Foods Corp. recalled frozen peas and mixed vegetables it packages under 13 brands. The recalled products, thought to be contaminated with the microscopic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, were included in several of HelloFresh's meal kits delivered to customers in 21 states. New food delivery methods such as home-delivered meal kits and prepackaged fares are changing the food industry. However, the evolving ways in which consumers now receive and prepare foods are creating new liability concerns that some insurers, brokers and others fear could become a recipe for disaster. On-the-go consumers are flocking to healthy alternative meal solutions. Within the past year, 25% of Americans purchased a meal kit and 70% continued to buy them after making their first purchase, according to Nielsen. But inside the neatly packaged boxes of preportioned ingredients and step-by-step recipes lurks the potential for foodborne illnesses and missed food allergens, and that has the insurance industry developing new offerings and risk management programs to stave off those potential exposures. In a recent study of 169 home meal kits, researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and Tennessee State University found the majority of meats, poultry and seafood in those kits arrived at consumers' doorsteps at temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit, making them unsafe to consume. Part of the problem is the time between refrigeration and delivery of those items. Only 5% of the orders required a signature upon delivery and many of the boxes were left outside for eight hours or more. Also, kits that arrived at temperatures between 60 and 70 degrees had "off the chart" microbial loads--the total number of bacteria and fungi in a given quantity of water or soil or on the surface of food, Rutgers professor Bill Hallman said at the 2017 annual Food Safety Summit in Rosemont, Illinois. Menu of Risks More than 100 subscription and a la carte meal-kit delivery service companies, such as Blue Apron, Home Chef, Chef'D and Plated, have sprung up in the past few years, and more competitors are continuing to crowd the multibillion-dollar market. National retailers, such as Whole Foods Market, Costco and Walmart; food purveyors, including Campbell Soup, Hershey and Tyson Foods, and Martha Stewart and other celebrities have also entered the meal-in-a-box fray. But today's "changing plate" is blurring the lines on how food is produced and delivered, and that's raising liability concerns and prompting the need for clarification of responsibilities and regulations when it comes to new food delivery models including meal kits, said Tami Griffin, national practice leader at Aon Risk Solutions. Under the lid of those kits lie many questions, including where food products and ingredients come from, whether product handlers are following proper safety protocols and if adequate packaging and temperature control measures are being taken. The Rutgers-Tennessee State study offered a glimpse into some of those answers. Researchers found dry ice often used inside meal kits fails to come with warning labels or handling information, and only 37% of deliveries had visible information indicating the parcels contained perishable foods. Compounding the problem is that containers used to ship perishable food often are much larger than necessary and often don't have packing materials to fill the empty space, thereby compromising temperature control measures. Also, non- or mislabeled food items inside meal kits bring about potential food allergy concerns, and cross-contamination issues can arise during their transportation, said Steve Kluting, the Midwest regional director of Arthur J. Gallagher & Company's food and agribusiness practice group. Concerns like those pose yet another question: Who is responsible if something goes awry? So far there are more questions than answers. Because of the lack of regulation and the novelty of these delivery models, it is not always clear who to blame when a crisis occurs. Adequate safety measures and protocols can lessen that risk. For example, clearly labeled disclosures about potential food allergens on companies' websites or inside meal boxes is generally adequate enough to protect against liability, said Bill Marler, a managing partner at Seattle-based law firm Marler Clark. He has been a plaintiff's attorney for a number of foodborne illness and food safety cases over the years, including the highly-publicized Jack in the Box E.coli outbreak in 1993. Four children died and 178 other people became ill after eating contaminated beef patties served at 73 of the restaurant's chains. "People with severe food allergies are good at reading labels and knowing what's in products," Marler said. "But if you're sourcing from different suppliers you need to familiarize yourself with each of those companies' food allergy profiles." Labels should also include information about the products' manufacturers or suppliers, he said."Doing so allows the box to work, in a sense, like a grocery store and liability becomes more limited. If some items are included in unnamed packages, the box entity may be on the hook for strict liability as a manufacturer." Liability can fall anywhere along the supply chain--from growers and processors to suppliers and distributors. Amazon, UPS, FedEx and other meal-kit carriers have largely been able to avoid liability because of the contractual relationships they have with their meal-kit providers, said James Neale, a partner at the law firm McGuireWoods LLP in Charlottesville, Virginia. Researchers found shipping companies that delivered meal-in-the-box kits in the Rutgers-Tennessee State study washed their hands of any responsibility if products showed up spoiled. Others in the supply chain, however, are at risk, and that's why traceability is key, said Jana Wilson, managing director of risk services and global lodging and leisure practice leader at Industria Risk & Insurance Services, a wholly owned subsidiary of Good Works Financial Group. Also, the shorter the chain, the fewer the risks, she said."Companies need to create and maintain relationships with all of their suppliers--from the guy who caught the fish, to the person who froze the fish, to the individual who transported the fish and finally to all of those who are responsible for preparing and serving the fish." Supply chains have increasingly become more global. That's why companies need a good quality assurance process to test imported products to ensure foods and ingredients are what they claim to be, said Steven Simmons, associate vice president of risk management in Nationwide's agribusiness insurance. He also suggests suppliers secure indemnity agreements which defend and indemnify them in the event of a loss due to use of a supplier of a product/ingredient to include adequate limits of insurance. "When possible have yourself listed as an additional insured on the product/ingredient maker's liability coverage," he said."Good contracts outlining duties and responsibilities will mitigate confusion in the event of a loss." Finding Solutions Food product liability insurance is one of the insurance options companies may want to consider. FPLI protects retail businesses against claims made from the sale of foods sold to the public, and it covers the retail seller's liability for losses or injuries suffered as a result of purchasing a product by a buyer, user or bystander. "Part of the problem is that FPLI is not a mandated coverage. At this point it is primarily the larger food service companies that are requiring FPLI from their suppliers,"Wilson said. That may soon change. Vicarious liability that follows the entire food chain is too large of a risk not to have in place the kind of coverage FPLI provides, she said. General liability policies help companies protect against third-party claims and provide defense and indemnity costs if a contamination or foodborne illness outbreak arises, said Florida-based injury attorney Jason Turchin. Each year, nearly 48 million Americans become sick and 3,000 die from foodborne diseases such as E.coli, salmonella and listeria, according to federal data. General liability, however, is laden with holes when it comes to reputational risks, and smaller farms and local growers may not carry the coverage, Turchin said."All it takes is one major outbreak to bankrupt them and shut down their entire operation." Product contamination and product recall insurance coverages can help fill the gap. The policies provide coverage for reputational harm and lost profits after an event, along with brand-building efforts and financial recovery for items that need to be removed from shelves or inventory stocks, said Amy Lochhead, a vice president and division underwriting manager at Liberty Mutual's national insurance unit. Today's recall insurance market remains relatively soft, and a number of new entrants are flooding the sector, said Caitlin McGrath, vice president of national product recall and accidental contamination risk consulting at Lockton."Despite recent losses, prices have remained low and companies are becoming more competitive with their coverages." Turchin suggests meal-kit providers and their suppliers also consider other coverage options such as medical payment insurance--a no-fault, good faith gesture that helps companies cover medical expenses, up to a certain amount, caused by a food product. Also, stand-alone workplace violence policies, cyber liability to protect the online exchange of customer data in meal-kit transactions and addons such as a vaccination endorsement can cover risks associated with new food delivery models, McGrath said. Risk Action Plans While adequate insurance coverages can certainly help, companies also need to adopt risk mitigation efforts and create crisis management plans, Marler said. For instance, place warning labels outside kits indicating which products need to be refrigerated and at what temperatures they should be stored and cooked, he said. "Taking steps that will help lower a company's risk profile and allow them to share--not shift--risk and responsibility from farm to fork." Also, know where products come from. Decide what kinds of food to include in a kit and which ones to avoid. "For example, raw oysters may not be the best choice," Marler said. Individuals with certain medical conditions, including cancer, diabetes and liver disease, are at risk for becoming seriously ill or dying from eating raw oysters that are contaminated with Vibrio vulnificus--a gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in warm, unpolluted seawater. Companies also need to examine their policy language and membership contracts. Blue Apron--the first U.S. meal-kit delivery service to go public, in 2017--requires members to agree to the provisions of a 20-page membership agreement outlining its terms of use and mandating members to go through an arbitration process on an individual basis limiting the remedies available to the consumer in the event of certain disputes, Wilson said. The New York startup, created by a professional chef, a venture capitalist and a computer engineer in 2014, currently serves about eight million meals a month. Blue Apron's terms of use agreement clearly holds its members responsible for inspecting all products for any damage or other issues upon delivery. Wilson said the company even goes as far as to recommend members use a thermometer to ensure that the internal temperature of meat, poultry and seafood is 40 degrees or below. "But each food element has a slightly different temperature requirement. While food safety experts must navigate, even anticipate, trends in food safety practices, consumer behavior is the sole responsibility of the consumer,"Wilson said. Companies also need to implement and maintain quality control measures, develop testing and traceability plans to monitor supply chain audits and keep abreast of current regulations, Liberty Mutual's Lochhead said. So far the meal-kit delivery industry remains relatively unregulated, experts say. The Food Safety Modernization Act--the most sweeping reform to U.S. food safety laws in more than 70 years--was enacted in 2011. However, other than reminding consumers about safe handling instructions, neither the FDA nor the United States Department of Agriculture have yet to issue any substantial guidance around new food delivery methods such as meal kits. Groups like the California Association of Environmental Health Administrators are hoping to change that. This year, the CAEHA proposed a new bill that would expand state-mandated food safety training to meal-kit delivery employees and would require them to obtain a food handlers card, which is a certificate obtained after an employee attends a food safety training course and passes an examination from an accredited organization. But companies like Blue Apron are pushing back over concerns with the bill. In 2016, the final rule to FSMA's Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food regulation went into effect. The rule is designed to protect foods from farm to table by keeping them safe from contamination during transportation. However, couriers--including meal-kit delivery services--are exempt from the final sanitary transport rule, which "ironically, was passed just as the meal-kit delivery model was on the horizon," Turchin said. Regulators are starting to examine home meal-kit delivery more closely, and as a result, Wilson expects the FDA will soon incorporate technical guidelines into the FSMA that will "stretch the understanding of food safety in our new food technology world." She also anticipates insurers will create micro-niche insurance products that would provide coverage for each of the "big eight" allergens, such as shellfish or peanuts, in an effort to help mitigate potential risks in the market. "As we dive deeper into this fat-free, gluten-free and other food sensitivities-free world we now live in, the government will continue to step in and more stringently regulate information about food allergies or sensitivities already being tested on countless menus and food packaging labels." Technology's Role Technology has a large hand in changing today's food industry. By 2025, 70% of consumers are expected to purchase at least some of their food online, according to reports. And new food preparation and delivery models are being overhauled by advances in robotics, analytics and big data. California startup Zume Pizza relies on robots to prepare and bake its pies. The company also uses artificial intelligence and big data to predict order volume and make its food fresher. Another startup, Chowbotics, recently created a robot it calls Sally to prepare custom, chef-inspired salads using precut products stored in refrigerated canisters. While technology is creating greater convenience, it's also upping the liability ante. And that's why companies need to think through their risk profile and ask themselves: Is convenience worth the risk, Marler said. "It's similar to what we saw 15 years ago with the rise in ready-to-eat salad mixes," he said. "Unfortunately, some of those companies didn't think about all of the potential risks that could arise if the mixes became contaminated while being shipped across the U.S. in refrigerated trucks, giving time for bacteria to grow." Insurers have struggled to wrap their heads around evolving risks like those. And new delivery models including home meal kits are once again forcing carriers to come up with novel ways to underwrite and insure those exposures, Lockton's McGrath said. "The thing about meal kits is that they aren't grocery stores. They're not frozen foods. So insurers have to figure out how to underwrite what is essentially a group of individual, prepackaged, portioned foods coming from multiple sources," she said. Only now are those answers becoming clearer and carriers are starting to feel more comfortable with those risks, McGrath said. Dinner-in-the-box delivery is more than a passing fad. The market is set to become a $5 billion industry over the next decade, according to food industry analyst Technomic Inc. So far claims and losses have remained low, Marler said. "That's probably because these are individual deliveries, and large-scale food safety litigation generally involves outbreaks that affect many people. I don't think meal kits are immune from food safety problems, but this delivery model will probably cause more one-off problems." The challenge will be detecting and pinpointing problems, which may fly under the radar, he said. by Lori Chordas Lori Chordas is a senior associate editor. She can be reached at lori. Key Points A Full Plate: The meal-kit delivery market, which packages convenient, healthy preportioned food in a box, is expected to become a $5 billion industry in the next several years. Hard Nut to Crack: Those kits present new liability exposures throughout the supply chain, as well as the potential for foodborne illnesses and possible missed food allergens. The Whole Enchilada: General liability, food product liability, product contamination and product recall, and cyber liability are a few of the coverages that can help recover losses stemming from those risks.
New York Police Officer Contracts Legionnaires' Disease
Officials are investigating a New York police station and water supply after an officer contracted Legionnaires' disease, a potentially life-threatening form pneumonia.Preliminary test results indicate that traces of the bacteria causing Legionnaires' disease were found at the police station in East Harlem. Officials have started inspecting the facility's systems and testing the precinct's water supply. The officer, who was not named, is recovering at a hospital outside of the city, according to the New York City Department of Health.Officials first became aware of the situation on Saturday.Legionnaires' disease is treatable with antibiotics, but it can be deadly if left untreated. Legionella pneumophila, the type of bacteria that causes the disease, thrive and multiply in water systems, cooling towers, indoor plumbing, hot tubs, air conditioners and mist sprayers. Most outbreaks have occurred in large buildings because complex water systems allow the bacteria to grow and spread more easily, according to the Mayo Clinic."Health officials are on site today to sample water in indoor plumbing, and to provide additional assistance and guidance," the health department said in a statement Sunday. "Legionnaires' disease is not contagious, officers can still work in the building but should avoid taking showers at the site until the investigation is complete. There is no public health risk to the larger community."The hot water supply at the station has been temporarily shut down.Officials have ruled out a cooling tower that supports the facility's heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems as a possible origin of the bacteria because it has been shut down since October as part of a renovation project, according to the police department. A new tower was installed last month, but it has not been activated.Legionnaires' disease was first discovered in 1976, when people attending a Pennsylvania American Legion convention at a hotel in Philadelphia developed pneumonia. More than 200 convention attendees and visitors were infected, and some died.People get sick with Legionnaires' disease by breathing small droplets of water containing the bacteria. Symptoms include headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Those at risk of getting sick are adults 50 years or older, smokers, and people with a chronic lung disease, weak immune systems, cancer and other preexisting illnesses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.On Friday, two guests at a Las Vegas resort contracted Legionnaires' disease, according to media reports. One stayed at the Rio All-Suite Hotel and Casino in March, while the other stayed there in April, CNN reported. Health officials said Legionella was found in the hot-water system of one of the hotel's towers.Between 200 and 400 cases of Legionnaires' disease are reported in New York City every year, according to the health department.In 2015, an outbreak in the South Bronx prompted health officials to implement tougher cooling tower regulations, hire more inspectors and train city employees on how to inspect cooling towers, officials said.Federal officials said last year that cases of Legionnaires' disease have nearly quadrupled in the United States over a 15-year period. About 6,000 cases were reported in 2015 alone."Large recent outbreaks in New York City and Flint, Mich., have brought attention to the disease and highlight the need to understand why the outbreaks occur and how best to prevent them," CDC Director Tom Frieden said in a briefing last year.Infants born during water births are at risk of contracting the disease.Two infants in Arizona were infected with Legionnaires' disease in 2016, according to the CDC. Both were delivered by a midwife in a home birthing tub. They survived after receiving antibiotics.- - -The Washington Post's Lena H. Sun contributed to this story.
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